Saturday, March 17, 2018

Strabismus, refractive errors and nystagmus in children and young adults with Down syndrome

Antonela LjubicVladimir TrajkovskiBranislav Stankovic
Ophthalmic Genetics
Volume 32, 2011 - Issue 4 Pages 204-211 | Received 07 Apr 2010, 
Accepted 23 May 2011, Published online: 05 Jul 2011


Purpose: The aims of the present population-based, cross-sectional study were to examine the frequency and type of strabismus, refractive errors and nystagmus in children and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) in Macedonia and Croatia.
Methods: A total of 170 unselected children and young adults with DS aged 1–34 years were examined for ocular findings. The ocular examination included: a visual acuity assessment, cycloplegic refraction, ocular alignment and ocular motility.
Results: Strabismus was found in 45 of 170 children (26.5%), and esodeviation was the most common type. Nine (20%) had exodeviation and 4 (8.9%) vertical deviation. In 27 of 32 esotropic patients, the strabismus was regarded as acquired esodeviations. The frequency of strabismus was lowest in the high-grade hyperopia group (5%). Concerning esodeviations, fewer cases (3%) were in the high-grade hyperopia group. Most of the cases with esodeviations were in correlation with low-grade hyperopia (31%), myopia (28 %) and emetropia (16%). Hyperopia was the most common refractive error and high myopia increased in prevalence in the over 20 age group. Astigmatism was present in 72.4% of patients. Nystagmus was observed in 18 patients. Ten of 18 patients with nystagmus were associated with the presence of strabismus (9 esodeviations, 1 exotropia).
Conclusion: In our study, the high prevalence of strabismus can not be attributed to the presence of hyperopia. Our data show no association between refraction and strabismus in children with DS. Oblique astigmatism has been found to be the most common type of astigmatism in our study group.

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